Knee Replacement Surgery: KEY FACTS Introduction
Knee replacement surgery is also known as “knee arthroplasty” or “knee resurfacing.”. It is a surgical process to replace the weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to provide pain relief and disability.
To restore mobility the surgeon caps the ends of the bones that form the knee joint with a metal or plastic components or implants a prosthetic, shaped as joint. Patients whose knee or knees have degenerated due to osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or post-traumatic arthritis may seek for a knee replacement surgery.
Reasons for knee Replacement Surgery
Below is enlisted the three most common causes for undergoing a knee replacement surgery
The age factor plays a key role under this type of arthritis and is caused due to normal wear and tear of the knee joints or by inflammation. It is more common in people of age group over 50 years.
Also known as inflammatory arthritis, the membrane around the knee joint becomes thick and inflamed. This inflammation causes soreness and stiffness.
This type of arthritis is due to a severe knee injury. Here, the bones around the knee break or causes a ligament tear.
Anybody undergoing above-enlisted arthritis must consultant orthopedic specialist in Delhi.
“Dr. Punit Dilawari”-( Senior Consultant Orthopaedic) and Joint Replacement Surgeon in Delhi.
About the Surgery
Preoperative preparation, medical consultation, and physical evaluation is a prerequisite before undergoing this major surgery.
Electrocardiograms (ECG) and urine tests are carried out to check blood count. Surgery is conducted either under general, spinal or epidural anesthetic. The procedure consists of an orthopedic surgeon removing the damaged cartilage and bone. Then, implant the metal or plastic component in it to restore the alignment.
Risks and complications
Some of the possible complications include
● Infection, seen in fewer than 2% of the patients.
● A blood clot in the legs, known as Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).
● A fracture during or after surgery.
● Continuous pain or stiffness.
● Nerve damage, causing numbness or weakness.
The patient should seek medical help if signs of infection or blood clots are noticed. Other common complications are
● Allergic reaction to the bone cement.
● Ligament, artery or nerve damage around the knee joints.
● Wearing down of implant surface, causing components to loosen.
● Bleeding of knee joints.
● Excess bone forming around the artificial knee joint.
A patient who has undergone knee replacement surgery is hospitalized for 1 to 3 days. The number of days depending on how well they follow and respond to rehabilitation. It is important to follow the instructions for quick recovery. The medical staff encourages the patient to walk after a day of surgery. Physical therapy sessions are conducted which aim to strengthen the knee. Although the sessions are painful these significantly reduce the risk of future complications.
Alternatives to surgery
A number of alternative procedures are available. Depending upon the seriousness of the damage, one may seek the alternative.
Kneecap Replacement: It can be done only when the kneecap is damaged. It is a short surgical procedure with a fast recovery time.
Mini-incision surgery (MIS): Involves a small in front of the knee, through which specialized instruments are inserted. It is less harmful to the joint and the recovery is even quicker.
Osteotomy: It is an open operation in which the shin bone is cut and realigned. It is generally carried for younger patients with limited arthritis.
Arthroscopic Washout and Debridement: it involves the insertion of an arthroscope, through a small incision in the knee. This is not advisable for patients with severe arthritis.
Image-guided surgery: it uses computerized images and infrared beacons to perform the surgery.
One must seek an experienced orthopedic specialist for such a major surgery. Dr. Punit Dilawari is one of them. He is the first Orthopaedic specialist, surgeon to have performed Resurfacing Shoulder Replacement in north India. He has experience of around 20 years in the area of Arthroscopic surgery with a special interest in shoulder and knee arthroscopic procedure. He has professional membership of the Indian Medical Association (IMA).
Spring Meadows Hospital, New Delhi was initially started in 1984 by Mr. Naresh Juneja. It is located inside the heart of South Delhi. It is a multi-specialty 30 bedded hospital with a major specialty under one roof.